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Featured Scoping Study: Emulating the Chemical mechanism through Machine Learning to speed up the real time Air Quality Prediction (ECheMLAQ)

This month we welcome a guest blog from a team using STFC expertise in Machine Learning to improve Air Quality Forecasting Systems. The scoping study is led by Dr Pushp Raj Tiwari.

Air Quality Forecasting Systems (AQFS) have an integrated chemistry module and simulations through them are computationally very expensive. Here we demonstrate the concept of replacing one module from CTMs with a novel Machine Learning (ML) framework to achieve orders of magnitude speed up in chemistry simulations, which mostly through traditional methods are slow and tend to suffer from numerical instability.

The recent SAQN workshop provided a unique opportunity to collaborate and address this problem. The three experts* from different organisations will be developing and investigating the potential for Machine Learning to reproduce the behaviour of a chemical mechanism, yet with reduced computational expense by working closely with each other.

In the period of January to June 2021, this pilot study aims to:

  • Develop the ML algorithm and test it against the model generated result
  • Replace the chemical mechanism with ML and perform simulations

The ML technique developed and results from this initial study will be used as proof of concept to allow this group to continue developing the next generation Air Quality Forecasting Systems (AQFS). Once the ML based system is sufficiently developed, it will enable scientists and prediction centres to implement it in their AQFS and achieve orders of magnitude speed up in prediction with reduced computational time and cost.

* Dr. Pushp Raj Tiwari, Centre for Atmospheric and Climate Physics Research, University of Hertfordshire; Dr. Vera He, UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Dr. Barry Latter, STFC.

Lockdown measures in Spring 2020 only account for half the observed improvements in UK air quality

Guest blogger Eloise Marais shares insights from a recently published paper, examining the causes of air quality change during the first UK lockdown.

There was widespread reporting of the air quality improvements in Spring 2020 in comparison to the previous year during the lockdown imposed from 23 March 2020 in the UK. Researchers at Universities of Leicester and Leeds, UCL and the National Centre for Earth Observation examined this dramatic drop in air pollution with a detailed model and measurements air pollution to find that lockdown measures only explain half the improvement in air quality.

This research, recently accepted by the journal Environmental Research Letters (https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/abde5d), used the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and observations from the space-based TROPOMI instrument onboard the ESA Sentinel-5P satellite. The model includes detailed representation of sources and chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere that affect regional air quality. This allowed the researchers to tease out the factors that contributed to improvements in air quality. They estimated that emissions decreased by 20-30% on average across the UK, but by much more (>40%) in London and only marginally in Scotland. They also found that differences in meteorology and long-range transport of pollution between the two years contributed at least half of the observed air quality improvements. The relative contribution of emissions and other factors for UK regions and two UK cities (London and Manchester) are shown in the figure below for the air pollutant PM2.5

These findings support the need to consider emissions as well as meteorology in developing air pollution mitigation measures and enforcing air quality policy standards, especially if the UK adopts a stricter PM2.5 standard.

Graph showing causes of decline in UK PM2.5 during the Spring 2020 lockdown

Guest blog: Modular Relaxed Eddy Covariance sensor for Air Quality – MOREC-AQ

Our featured Scoping Study this month is from the team led by Dr Lekan Popoola, examining the relationship between ammonia (NH3) and particulate matter (PM).

The Clean Air Strategy (Defra, 2019) sets out an ambitious, stringent target to cut emission of major air pollutants by 2020 and 2030. A significant air pollution challenge is the shift in the relative importance from a relatively small number of major emission sources to many minor sources (such as intensive agriculture, wood burning from homes and smaller industrial sites). The impact of COVID-19 restrictions and various lockdowns have created changes in mobility behaviour, with increasing importance of residential emissions as many of us work from home. Evaluation of the impact of these emission sources requires evidence-based scientific methods and data.

During the recent SAQN collaboration building workshop, research scientists from STFC-RAL Space (Thomas Wall), Cranfield University (Zaheer Nasar), and the University of Cambridge (Lekan Popoola) were successful in getting funding from SAQN to develop a proof-of-concept for a cost-effective Modular Relaxed Eddy Covariance (MOREC-AQ) measurement approach to fluxes/source characterisation and a miniaturised cost-effective NH3 instrument to incorporate into MOREC-AQ (see schematics below).

The specific objectives include: (1) feasibility studies for a portable high-resolution NH3 sensor; (2) design and characterisation of a prototype MOREC-AQ unit; (3) explore additional funding opportunities to further develop and optimise the prototype MOREC-AQ unit.

Monitoring and quantifying atmospheric emissions and their drivers is important to investigate the interplay between gaseous pollutants and PM, informing and evaluating the impacts of air quality interventions. This proof of concept study will allow scoping out the development of cost-effective, reliable emission monitoring solutions for air quality management, particularly in the context of the NH3/PM relationship.

System schematics for the MOREC-AQ

If you have comments or questions about this project, you can share them on our discussion board.

Guest Blog – Sources, behaviour and mitigation strategies influencing indoor air quality: A pilot study

Each month, we welcome a guest blog post from one of our current Scoping Studies, funded through our recent Collaboration Building Workshop. This month we’re pleased to hear from a team examining different influences on indoor air quality.

The average person in the UK spends more than 90% of their time indoors, and indoor air quality (IAQ) related emissions can contribute significantly to total air pollution exposure. Despite this, relatively few studies focus on IAQ compared to outdoor air quality. 

A recent SAQN workshop brought together experts on building design and ventilation, indoor air quality measurement, occupant behaviour, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The 9 experts* from academia and industry will be utilising the domestic energy systems and technologies incubator based at The University of Chester (designed to represent a kitchen space), to characterise IAQ related events using equipment donated by the participating organisations.

In the period of January to June 2021, this pilot study aims to:

  • Define occupant behaviours (e.g., cooking, cleaning, etc) based on the UK Time Use Survey.
  • Carry out physical behaviours in different ventilation conditions, e.g. cooking & cleaning.
  • Measure air quality factors (including particulates and microbes) and relevant environmental factors (e.g., temperature and air movement) before and after the activities occur.
  • Develop a CFD simulation and utilise STFC high performance computing facilities to improve its relationship to actual data. 

The data from this initial study will be used as proof of concept to allow this group to continue developing and validating the CFD simulation against physical results, as well as to facilitate future deployments into real-world indoor environments. Once the CFD simulation is sufficiently developed, it will enable faster exploration of many behavioural activities and environmental settings.

If you have comments or questions about this project, you can share them on our discussion board.

* Dr Vicki Stevenson, Cardiff University; Dr Archit Mehra, University of Chester; Dr Zaheer Nasar, Cranfield University; Dr Stefano Rolfo, STFC; Dr Stephanie Gauthier, University of Southampton; Dr Alejandro Moreno Rangel, Lancaster University; Dr Jo Zhong, Nottingham Trent University; Dr Rob Ferguson, University of Essex; Dr Douglas Booker, NAQTS

Reflections on virtual networking and collaboration

When lockdown arrived in March 2020, it was clear that our carefully laid plans for a two day residential Collaboration Building Workshop were going to have to change. We initially thought that we might be able to hold the event in person by postponing to November, but by the summer it seemed clear that these plans would also need to be altered.

Taking the workshop online was the obvious course, but was a daunting prospect. How could people make meaningful connections with complete strangers online? Would they manage to build collaborations that could last? Were they going to develop project proposals that we could fund? But a virtual sandpit was also an opportunity; in preparing a face to face workshop, we’d had misgivings about excluding people with caring responsibilities, or who would have long distances to travel. And requiring people to travel to an event also meant contributing to air pollution. We hoped that an online event would allow us to address these issues.

Our experimental workshop finished in mid-November and we were delighted with the results. 28 researchers took part in the workshop, and between them they produced six project proposals. Our funding panel awarded Scoping Study funds to five of these proposals, and invited the sixth to re-submit, and this wasn’t just to avoid making difficult decisions: the proposals all offered good opportunities for new collaborations (see point 5 below). Feedback from the participants was very positive, both about the new working relationships they made, and about the format of the workshop itself. 100% of participants said they found the workshop ‘positive’ or ‘very positive’. One participant said they learned “lots of options for online interaction, a bit about STFC and it’s [sic] potential for future links, lots of amazing contacts! Thank you!”.

So what did we learn from our experience? These are just some of my initial reflections.

1. A good facilitator is worth their weight in gold.

We were very fortunate to work with Christine Bell from the Centre for Facilitation, whose creative ideas in designing the workshop and skillful management of each session was appreciated by everyone. One participant said the facilitation was “Amazing, really engaging and effective, can’t fault it one bit! Wish more events were run like this.”. Christine was able to create a warm, friendly atmosphere that drew everyone in and encouraged them to participate fully. Seemingly little details, such as always inviting everyone to switch on their cameras when she wanted their attention, made a huge difference to everyone’s engagement. One participant commented that in other online events she would be distracted by emails and doing other things, but in this she felt focussed and ‘in the room’. An excellent facilitator was crucial to the success of the workshop.

2. Online events allowed for real life to continue

One problem with ‘sandpit’ events is that anyone with caring responsibilities, or in a role where they can’t take two days out of the office, is immediately excluded from the process and loses out on funding. We carefully designed our timetable to fit within 10am – 3pm to fit in with school runs, and allowed enough time in between sessions for the additional work to be completed without using evenings or weekends. 26% of our participants said that they would not have been able to attend if the event had been face to face. Some participants noted that they were able to fit the workshop in around their teaching schedules, and one participant managed to deliver a project idea to the group whilst also bouncing his baby in his lap! We want to strive to make all our events as diverse and inclusive as possible, and an online format helped us to do this.

3. Avoiding ‘Zoom fatigue’

Rather than replicate the timetable of the two day event online, we decided to spread it out over two weeks, with no more than 3 hours on Zoom in a day. We also built in small breaks throughout each session, where participants were invited to turn off their cameras for 5 minutes. This allowed time for reflection and to stretch legs, without feeling ‘on display’. One of the side effects of our schedule was that participants had more time to reflect and develop their ideas in between sessions than they would have done in an intensive sandpit process. One participant commented “The format was brilliant, and in many ways actually better than an in-person workshop as it gave time for us to step away from the ideas and let them slowly develop.”

4. Collaboration, not competition

We placed an emphasis on building a community through the workshop, and spent time thinking about what leads to good collaboration. This led to a genuinely supportive atmosphere amongst the participants, rather than a cutthroat dash for the funding. Our aim as a network is to build lasting collaborations, so we were delighted to see that the projects were all new teams, with great potential for further work that will benefit the air quality community.

5. Real things happen in a virtual space

Of course, the aim of the workshop was to develop new research ideas that could be funded by SAQN. We had a maximum of six pots of £8,000 to award, and (subject to re-submission) may be able to award every one of these. The funding panel were impressed by the quality of the applications, the high standard of presentation and the ability of the teams to develop these ideas in a short space of time. We are looking forward to seeing the results of these projects over the coming months. The topics included are ammonia, machine learning, air reference units, indoor air quality and sensors for eddy covariance.

Finally, on a personal note, I have learned a huge amount about the ways we can make meaningful connections in an online environment. I am excited to apply this learning to future SAQN events, as online events offer low-cost, low-polluting ways to make lasting collaborations. Of course, there were many things about the workshop that we feel could have been improved, and we are continuing our discussions about these to make the next Collaboration Building Workshop even more successful!

SAQN Discussion Board relaunched – introduce yourself!

Our new Discussion Board is live and waiting for your contribution! We wanted to find a way for network members to make connections and discuss important topics without travelling to meetings. We’ve replaced our previous discussion board with an improved system, which works much more smoothly.

The Discussion Board can be viewed by anyone, and network members can comment and add new threads. Existing members simply need to complete the short form on the website to gain access.

To kick off the conversation, head to the Discussion Board and introduce yourself.

Air Quality Hub Launches for Local Authority Air Quality Professionals

The Air Quality Hub is a new, free online knowledge sharing resource for those working in the field of local air quality management. Focused on information exchange between local authority professionals, the Hub features a range of content areas related to strategy measures that local authorities can adopt, as well as more specific practitioner advice notes that focus on various aspects of air quality management planning, monitoring and enforcement. The Hub also includes a growing library of relevant case studies and a forum for direct peer to peer communication. The funding for the project is via a Defra air quality grant.

The Air Quality Hub will be officially launched on the 26th November and eligible practitioners are invited to join the Hub managers for an hour on Zoom @ 1pm to learn what it does and how it can help you on an ongoing basis. There are also lots of opportunities to help your fellow practitioners by contributing your own real-world experience and best practice advice.

If you’re working in local or national government, other national bodies or in academia and would like to join us, please email admin@airqualityhub.co.uk to receive joining instructions.

Academics and public sector professionals with a legitimate interest in air quality management can also access the site and forum, subject to specific approval. The Air Quality Hub is not currently available for commercial organisations.

The Low Emission Partnership, which developed and operates the Hub, is seeking case studies for a number of strategy areas that are currently under-represented on the Hub, and welcome ad hoc submissions or enquiries about becoming a regular content contributor.

Please contact admin@airqualityhub.co.uk for more information.

PHE Air Quality Conference: 14 – 15 October

Public Health England have opened registration for the 2020 ‘Annual UK Review Meeting on Outdoor and Indoor Air Pollution Research’ and ‘Air Quality and Public Health Stakeholder Seminar’. The meetings will take place on Wednesday 14th and Thursday 15th October 2020 respectively using Microsoft Teams Live Events.

Full details of the programme and registration information can be found on the links below.

Stakeholder seminar: www.phe-events.org.uk/aqph2020

Annual meeting: www.phe-events.org.uk/airpollution20

Air Quality & COVID-19: Report Published

We are pleased to announce the publication of the report from our May event, ‘Air Quality & COVID-19’. This report is jointly authored by SAQN, UKIEG and AQNUK as convenors of the workshop. In addition to the Executive Summary and Calls to Action, the report contains summaries of the speaker presentations, the workshop methodology, and information on ways to connect with STFC.

We are keen to encourage further interdisciplinary work with others interested in air quality challenges, and we invite the community to contact us with their responses to the Calls to Action so that we can continue the conversation. SAQN will be doing further work to identify what work is happening in the different research areas, and finding areas where STFC capabilities can contribute to the research.

Our upcoming Collaboration Building Workshop offers an opportunity to connect with researchers in different disciplines and apply for Scoping Study funding for new work using STFC capabilities. Our starting points for discussion will be the themes identified at our launch event and the calls to action from this report, as the most pressing challenges in air quality at the moment. We welcome applications from a wide range of disciplines.

Collaboration Building Workshop to be held online

SAQN’s Collaboration Building Workshop, which was postponed due to lockdown, will now take place online. With so much uncertainty around holding in-person events, we decided that a virtual event would be the best option.

The workshop will be run by a professional facilitator, Christine Bell from the Centre for Facilitation. Meet Christine and hear more about the workshop format in this introductory video:

Read the information sheet, selection criteria and apply to attend the workshop on our events page.